现在完成时态考点归纳

时间:2021-03-01 14:30来源:文学汇粹

现在完成时态考点归纳

董明义

一、考查现在完成时的用法之一“过影现”

“过影现”表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。此时,常与时间副词already(已经),yet(还;已经),just(刚刚;仅仅),ever(曾经),never(从不),before(以前)等连用。注意:already常用于肯定句中,yet用在疑问句中意为“已经”,用在否定句中意为“还”。如:

She has lost her bike.她把自行车丢了。(“丢”这个动作是过去发生的,对现在造成的结果是“她现在没有自行车骑了”。)

I’ve already read this book.我已经读过这本书了。(“读”这一动作发生在过去,对现在造成的影响是“我已知道书中的内容”。)

【中考题例】

1. Julia isn’t going to the cinema with us because she____the film.(2013年湖州卷)

A. sees

B.saw

C. will see

D. has seen

2.- Have you finished your homework?

____.Just half of it.How about you?(2013年苏州卷)

A. Not at all

B. Not likely

C.Not a bit

D. Not yet

3.- Your shoes are so old Why don’t you buy a new pair?

- Because I____all my money on an MP5.(2013年广东卷)

A.spend

B.have spent

C. am spending

D.was spending

二、考查现在完成时的用法之二“过延现”

“过延现”表示过去已经开始,延续到现在的动作或状态,甚至还可能继续延续下去。常与for或slnce引出的时间状语连用,动词必须是延续性动词。如:live,study,work,be,wait,know,stay,teach,keep,walk,sleep等。注意:for为介词,后面要接“一段时间”;smce用作介词时,后面接“过去的时间点”;since用作连词时,后面接“从句”(从句谓语动词用一般过去时)。另外,SO far(至今),up to now(到目前为止)也常与现在完成时连用。如:

Mr. Wang has worked in the factory since he came to the city.自从王先生到这个城市以来,他就在这家工厂工作。

So far, she has learnt about two thousand English words.到目前为止,她已经学了大约2000个英语单词。

The baby has slept for three hours.孩子已睡三个小时了。

温馨提醒:非延续性动词表示某一瞬间就结束的动作,常见的有:come, go, arrive, reach, see, hear, close, open, leave,begin, start, lose, buy, fall, join, die, get up, become, borrow,lend.find,finish,receive等。这些动词可用于现在完成时,说明某个动作的结果还存在,但不能和表示一段时间的状语如how long,for,since连用。可将它们转换为表示延续状态的词,如:buy-have , borrow/ lend-keep, join-be in/be a member of,die-be dead,leave-be away(from),begin-be on等。试体会下列例句:

A他人团两年了。

误:He has joined the League for two years.

正:He has been a League member for two years.

A我买这辆自行车三年了。

误:I have bought this bike for three years.

正:I have had this bike for three years.

A他离开家五天了。

误:He-left home for five days.

正:He has been away from home for five days.

【中考题例】

4. My uncle has been taught in this school____he wastwenty years old. (2013年鞍山卷)

A. since

B.for

C.until

D.after

5.-Look at these stamps.I____them for five years.

-Wow, they are wonderful.(2013年衡阳卷)

A. kept

B.have kept

C.have bought

6.He____Luzhou for three months. (2013年泸州卷)

A. has left

B.has come to

C. has gone to

D.has been away from

7.-How long has Robert____?

-Since 2004. (2013年济南卷)

A. been to Beijing

B.become a policeman

C. joined the art club

D.studied in this school

三、考查have/has gone to,have/has been to与have/hasbeen in的区别

have/has been to表示“曾经去过某地”,现在人已经不在那儿了;have/has gone to表示“已去了某地”,说话时,该人已不在现场,可能在去某地的途中,也可能已经到达目的地,一般不用第一、二人称作主语。注意:后接地点副词时,介词to要省略;have beenin表示“某人在某地”,去了某个地方或来到了某个地方多久。

【中考题例】

8.-1s Tom at home?

-No, he___to town. (2013年天津卷)

A. has been

B.has gone

C.goes

D.will go

9. A number of tourists

.Yangzhou many timesbecause it is,such a beautiful city.(2013年扬州卷)

A. have been to

B.has been to

C. has gone to

D.have gone to

10.-Jack,I haven’t seen your uncle for a lortg time.

-He________Shanghai on business for two months.(2013年随州卷)

A. went tO

B.has gone to

C. has been in

D.has been to

四、考查现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

现在完成时与一般过去时都可以表示过去发生的.动作,但二者的侧重点不同。一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,也可表示过去习惯性的动作,不涉及与现在的关系。常与表示过去的具体时间状语连用,如:yesterday,last year,in1998,three years ago等。而现在完成时强调过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,以及过去已开始并延续到现在的动作,与现在有着密切的关系,不能与表示过去的时间状语连用。

【中考题例】

11. - Anna, have you____seen China’s Got Talent(达人秀)?

-Of course.I

it last weekend.(2013年成宁卷)

A. never;saw

B.ever;have seen

C. never;have seen[)。ever;saw

12.- Have you had your breakfast yet?

-Yes. Mom_

it for me.(2013年江西卷)

A. was cooking

B.is cooking

C.will cook

D.cooked

Key: 1~5 DDBAB

6—10 DDBAC

11~12 DD

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